E. Yespas. Endicott College.
Any generalizations obtained from a nonprobability sample must be fltered through one’s knowledge of the topic being studied order vytorin 20 mg without a prescription. Nosocomial infections: An infection whose development is favored by a hospital environment buy vytorin paypal, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff purchase vytorin 30 mg with visa. Such infections include fungal and bacterial infections and are aggravated by the reduced resistance of individual patients. They are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Es- tonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Swit- zerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Opportunity cost: The cost of an action measured in terms of the value of the next best alternative action. For example, if capital is used for one pur- pose, the opportunity cost is the value of the next best purpose the capital could have been invested in. Parallel importation: The importation of a product without the permission of the intellectual property owner. Parallel imports are imports of a pat- ented or trademarked product from a country where it is already marketed. Pharmaceutical crime: Involves the manufacture, trade and distribution of fake, stolen or illicit medicines and medical devices. It encompasses the counterfeiting and falsifcation of medical products and their packaging and associated documentation, as well as theft, fraud, illicit diversion, smuggling, traffcking, the illegal trade of medical products, and the money laundering associated with it. Pharmacist: A person who is licensed to prepare, sell, dispense drugs and compounds, and write prescriptions. Pharmacopeia: A compilation of monographs that defne quality assessment and requirements for acceptable products and the preparation of compound medicines. Compliance with it generally is mandated by the laws of a sover- eign state, and it is published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. Pharmacovigilance: The science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems. Postmarket surveillance: The process by which a drug’s safety and quality is monitored on an ongoing basis after it is approved. Price elasticity: The responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price. Primary packaging: Packaging in direct contact with the product, intended to protect one or more items and, if needed, to keep it sterile until use. Procurement agency: Any organization purchasing or otherwise acquiring any pharmaceutical product, vaccine, or nutraceutical for human use. Quality: The suitability of either an active pharmaceutical ingredient or a pharmaceutical product for its intended use. Quality assurance: A wide-ranging concept covering all matters that indi- vidually or collectively infuence the quality of a product. With regard to pharmaceuticals, quality assurance can be divided into fve major areas: development, quality control, production, distribution, and storage. Quality control: The sampling, specifcation, testing, organization, docu- mentation, and release procedures that ensure the necessary and relevant tests are carried out, and that materials are not released for use, nor products released for sale or supply, until their quality has been judged satisfactory. Raman spectroscopy: A technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. It relies on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives informa- tion about the vibrational modes in the system. Refectance: The measure of the proportion of light or other radiation strik- ing a surface that is refected off it. Refectance spectroscopy: A spectroscopic technique that measures the un- absorbed portion of a beam of light that is shone on the surface of a mate- rial, such as a drug product. Refectance spectroscopy is used for samples that are diffcult or inconvenient to analyze by transmission techniques. Refractive index: The measurement of the bending of a ray of light as it passes from one medium into another. Sampling frame: A list or other device used to defne a researcher’s popula- tion of interest. It defnes a set of elements from which a researcher can select a sample of the target population. This technique sputters the surface of a specimen with a focused primary ion beam and collects and analyzes ejected secondary ions. The mass-to-charge ratios of these secondary ions are measured with a mass spectrometer to determine the elemental, isotopic, or molecular composi- tion of the surface. Unique codes are placed on each unit packaged, using variable data printers or preprinted labels or cartons, and then read by a vision system. These unique codes are uploaded to an event repository database that can be accessed by various parties, including pharmacists, law enforcement of- fcials, and even consumers after the product is shipped and sold. Slum: A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard hous- ing and squalor. Solid dose formulation: A mixture of active pharmaceutical ingredients and nondrug components in solid form, such as a pill, tablet, or capsule. Solubility: The ability of a substance to dissolve and form a homogeneous substance. Spectrometer: An instrument used for measuring the interaction of light with a substance (e. Spectroscopy: The study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter. The focus is the repeated application of unchanged processes and procedures and its documentation in order to segregate origins, causes and effects. Substandard: A drug that fails to meet national specifcations outlined in an accepted pharmacopeia or in the manufacturer’s dossier. Substandard drugs are usually made by legitimate, known manufacturers and are the result of quality system failures. Supply chain: A system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials, and components into a fnished product that is delivered to the end customer. Surveillance is one of a number of methods used by epidemi- ologists to gather information on a disease. Tandem mass spectrometry: A technique involving multiple rounds of mass spectrometry, usually separated by some form of molecule fragmentation. For example, one mass analyzer can isolate one peptide from many entering a mass spectrometer. A second mass analyzer then stabilizes the peptide ions while they collide with a gas, causing them to fragment by collision-induced dissociation. An important application using tandem mass spectrometry is in protein identifcation. These experiments are used to increase specifcity of detection of known molecules, notably in pharmacokinetic studies.
Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with liver disease discount vytorin 30mg line, kidney disease vytorin 20mg line, impaired pulmonary function order vytorin, respiratory depression, myasthenia gravis, dehydration, porphyria, muscle spasms, hypokalemia, hypermagnesemia, dehydration, underlying cardiovascular dis- ease, fractures, hyperthermia, shock, thyroid disorders, famil- ial periodic paralysis. Accordingly, an antianxiety agent (benzodiazepine) or analgesic (narcotic) is administered along with these drugs. Accordingly, appro- priate measures must be on hand to provide respiratory support should this be necessary. As consciousness is not affected by the drug, use caution in conversation near patient. Clinically important drug interactions: Drugs that increase effects/ toxicity of neuromuscular blockers: inhalation anesthetics, amino- glycosides, quinidine, lincomycin, tetracycline, lithium, magne- sium sulfate, polymyxin D, vancomycin, bacitracin, colistin. If respiratory depression persists, administer a cholinesterase inhibitor, eg, neostigmine or pyridostigmine. Editorial comments • Neuromuscular blocking drugs should be administered by or under supervision of experienced clinicians who are thor- oughly familiar with these drugs and know how to treat potential complications that might arise from their use. Administration of these drugs should be made in a setting where there are facilities available for the following: tracheal intuba- tion, administration of oxygen, drugs for reversing drug effects, and administration of artificial respiration. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 30–49 mL/min: 1 g every 12 hours; creatinine clearance 10–29 mL/min: 1 g every 24 hours; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min: 500 mg every 24 hours. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to valacyclovir, acyclovir, immunocompromised patients. Warnings/precautions: Use with caution in patients with renal dis- ease, hemolytic anemia, and in patients receiving other nephrotoxic drugs. Advice to patient • Male patients should use condoms if engaging in sexual inter- course while using this medication. Clinically important drug interactions: Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of valacyclovir: probenecid, cimetidine. Editorial comments • It is most important to institute valacyclovir therapy as soon as possible following signs or symptoms of herpes zoster infec- tion. It is unknown how effective treatment would be more than 72 hours after onset of rash. Such recurrences are rare and may indicate an underlying malignancy or dysfunction of the immune system. Valproic Acid Brand names: Depacon (valproate sodium injection), Depakote (tablets), Depakene (capsules, syrup). Not recommended for treatment of mania in children <18 years or of migraine in children <16 years. Food: Capsules or tablets should be swallowed whole to avoid irritation of oral mucosa. Contraindications: Liver disease or hepatic dysfunction, hyper- sensitivity to valproic acid. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with previous history of liver dis- ease, patients on multiple anticonvulsants (see drug interactions below), congenital metabolic disorders, organic brain disease, severe seizures accompanied by mental retardation. Advice to patient • Do not drive or perform other activities requiring alertness until effects of the drug are known. Adverse reactions • Common: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, dyspepsia, diarrhea, anorexia. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of valproic acid: aspirin, alcohol, felbamate, rifampin, diazepam. Perform platelet counts and coagulation tests before initiating therapy and periodically thereafter. Food: Advise patients to limit foods containing potassium: salt substitutes, orange juice, bananas. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to valsartan, anuria, hyper- sensitivity to sulfonamides (thiazide diuretics, oral hypo- glycemic drugs). Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 40–90 mL/min: admin- ister q24h; creatinine clearance 10–20 mL/min: administer q96h; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min: administer 5–7 days. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with: hearing impairment, intes- tinal obstruction, and in patients receiving other potentially nephrotoxic or ototoxic drugs, kidney disease, elderly. Adverse reactions • Common: nausea, vomiting, taste disturbances, rash on face and upper body (parenteral administration). Clinically important drug interactions: Vancomycin increases effects/toxicity of aspirin, aminoglycosides, cyclosporine, loop diuretics, nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers, general anesthetics. If extrava- sation is suspected, remove catheter and discontinue adminis- tration. It is used to treat entero- coccal infections resistant to ampicillin, preferable in combination with an aminoglycoside. Contraindications: Chronic nephritis (until controlled), hyper- sensitivity to beef/pork proteins, hypersensitivity to vasopressin, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with seizures, asthma, migraine, heart failure, goiter, atherosclerosis. Adverse reactions • Common: hypertension, headache, fever, skin pallor, tremor, abdominal cramps, nausea, diaphoresis. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of vasopressin: carbamaze- pine, clofibrate, chloropropamide, ganglionic blockers, fludro- cortisone, phenformin, urea. Parameters to monitor • Intake of fluids and urinary and other fluid output to minimize renal toxicity. Editorial comments • Physician should be advised that dosage for treating diabetes insipidus is highly variable. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Mild to moderate: reduce dose by 25%; severe: reduce dose by 50%. Increase to 240 mg in morning and 120 mg in evening and then 240 mg q12h if needed. Sit at the edge of the bed for several minutes before standing, and lie down if feeling faint or dizzy. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of calcium blockers: cimet- idine, β blockers, cyclosporine. Impaired renal function prolongs duration of action and increases tendency for toxicity. If anginal pain is not reduced at rest or during effort, reassess patient as to medication. If reepithelialization has not occurred in 21 days, other therapy should be considered. Adverse reactions • Common: lacrimation, irritation, infection of the conjunctiva. Editorial comments • May be administered together with topical gentamicin, eryth- romycin, and chloramphenicol.
In the longer term purchase vytorin discount, the guidelines will contribute to and inform efforts to achieve universal health coverage buy vytorin 30 mg online, a key pillar of the post-2015 development agenda order vytorin overnight. The public health approach seeks to ensure the widest possible access to high-quality services at the population level, based on simplifed and standardized approaches, and to strike a balance between implementing the best-proven standard of care and what is feasible on a large scale in resource-limited settings. Some countries may face signifcant ethical challenges as they seek to implement these guidelines in the context of constraints on resources and health systems. A key challenge may involve the need to give priority to ensuring ArT for the people who are most ill and those already receiving treatment, while also striving to implement expanded eligibility criteria. Each country will need to plan its own approach to ensuring that current ArV programmes are not disrupted and that expanded access is fair and equitable. A strong recommendation for a specifc approach to service delivery should not necessarily be viewed as an endorsement of that model over an effective service delivery model already in place in a country. Systematic reviews were outsourced to researchers who developed search protocols and conducted reviews of the available scientifc evidence. Methods and process for developing the guidelines 49 Two global community and civil society consultations on service delivery across the continuum of care in generalized and concentrated epidemic settings. Consultations with health workers working with adults and with children on the values and preferences related to priority areas in the guidelines were conducted through an e-survey (Web Annex www. An impact assessment using the Spectrum model to estimate the increased number of adults and children eligible for ArT based on various eligibility criteria (Web Annex www. A full draft of the guidelines was circulated for comment to members of the Guideline Development Groups and the external peer review group. A total of 21 Guideline Development Group members and 12 peer reviewers declared membership of pharmaceutical industry or other advisory panels or receipt of consulting fees, and 23 Guideline Development Group members and 13 peer reviewers declared pharmaceutical industry fnancial support through grants for research. There was also a further declaration at the Guideline Development Group meeting of the involvement of members as investigators in key trials and studies. The broad range of constituencies represented on the different Guideline Development Group panels was also noted, and that the majority of members had no declared interests. All individuals with declared interests therefore proceeded to participate fully in the Guideline Development Group meetings or to act as peer reviewers. The proposed recommendations were then considered, informed by a standardized decision-making table for each topic (Box 3. The Guideline Development Groups discussed both the proposed wording of the recommendations and the rating of its strength (strong or conditional). All decisions were reached by discussion and consensus on the recommendations, including their strength and, where appropriate, the conditions to be attached to the recommendations. Disagreements were resolved through e-mail discussions, teleconferences and redrafting recommendations and rationale. Early drafts of sections of the guidelines were circulated to Guideline Development Group members, and a full draft of the guidelines was circulated to Guideline Development Group members and peer reviewers for comment. The extensive comments from more than 100 reviewers were addressed where possible and incorporated into the revised guidelines. The quality of evidence is defined as the confidence that the reported estimates of effect are adequate to support a specific recommendation. Observational studies are initially rated as low-quality evidence but may be upgraded if the magnitude of the treatment effect is very large, if multiple studies show the same effect, if evidence indicates a dose–response relationship or if all plausible biases would underestimate the effect (10). The higher the quality of evidence, the more likely a strong recommendation can be made. The strength of a recommendation reflects the extent to which the Guideline Development Group was confident that the desirable effects of following a recommendation outweigh the potential undesirable effects. The strength is influenced by the following factors: the quality of the evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, values and preferences, resource use and the feasibility of the intervention (Table 3. A strong recommendation is one for which the Guideline Development Group was confident that the desirable effects of adhering to the recommendation outweigh the undesirable effects. A conditional recommendation is one for which the Guideline Development Group concluded that the desirable effects of adhering to the recommendation probably outweigh the undesirable effects but the Guideline Development Group is not confident about these trade-offs. The reasons for making a conditional recommendation include the absence of high- quality evidence; imprecision in outcome estimates; variability in the values and preferences of individuals regarding the outcomes of interventions; small benefits; applicability in all settings versus specific settings; and benefits that may not be worth the costs (including the costs of implementing the recommendation). The more that the benefts outweigh the risks, the more likely that a strong recommendation will be made. Values and If the recommendation is likely to be widely accepted or highly valued, a preferences strong recommendation will probably be made. If there are strong reasons (acceptability) that the recommended course of action is unlikely to be accepted, a conditional recommendation is more likely to be made. Costs and fnancial Lower costs (monetary, infrastructure, equipment or human resources) implications or greater cost–effectiveness will more likely result in a strong (resource use) recommendation. Feasibility If an intervention is achievable in a setting where the greatest impact is expected, a strong recommendation is more probable. This applies to specific topics in Chapter 9, including retention across the continuum of care, but this did not lead to formal recommendations. Structured discussions were held among Guideline Development Group members regarding setting priorities for key clinical recommendations in various epidemic scenarios (settings with generalized and concentrated epidemics and with low, moderate and high ArT coverage). A short version will summarize key new and existing recommendations for easy reference. A library of all supporting documentation and evidence will also be made available on the web site. Assistance will be provided to Member States to adapt the guidelines to their national contexts. An evaluation of how users have implemented the guidelines has been developed to assess the uptake of the recommendations and the barriers to effective implementation. Interim technical and programmatic updates may be developed if important new evidence becomes available. These include existing recommendations that have been updated, where a new evidence review was undertaken as part of this guidelines process. They are presented in the following format to reflect the full evidence review and discussion held within the Guideline Development Group for new recommendations. When the recommendation relates to a specific population, the key issues for that population may be briefly summarized. The new evidence on which the recommendation is based and other key operational and programmatic considerations that informed the development of the recommendation are summarized. In some cases, key clinical implementation issues specific to the recommendation are listed. For several key recommendations, discussion of implementation considerations relevant to programme managers is presented in Chapter 10. In some cases, critical issues requiring further research are briefly described or listed, where these are integral to the recommendations. The references relating to each section are listed at the end of the guidelines by chapter number. In general, these are presented in the following format: Background; Source(s) for recommendation(s); Additional guidance (where appropriate); and Existing recommendation(s). The populations relevant to each recommendation are clearly specifed and also marked by an appropriate symbol for quick reference.
Retroviruses infect only dividing cells and thus are often used to introduce genes into cells ex vivo where cell division can be stimulated with growth-promoting media cheap 20 mg vytorin with mastercard. Retroviral vectors can also be directly administered to patients order 30 mg vytorin fast delivery, though the applicability of this approach is limited by the rapid inactivation of retroviruses by human 336 Figure 14 vytorin 20 mg visa. A) Gene delivery systems are designed to control the location of a gene within the body by affecting distribution, and access of a gene expression system to the target cell receptor followed by intracellular and nuclear translocation. B) Plasmid-based gene expression systems are designed to control the level and duration of in vivo production of a therapeutic gene product complement. However, retroviral vectors are not safe to use because of its random insertion into the host cell chromosome, which may lead to insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. Adenoviral vectors infect both dividing and non-dividing cells in many different tissues including airway epithelial cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes and various tumors. The adenovirus genome is much larger (about 35 kb) and its organization is much more complex than retroviruses. Genes introduced into cells using adenoviral vectors are maintained in the nucleus episomally and provide transsient expression of transgenes. Compared to viral vectors, gene medicines present several potential advantages, including: • low cost; • non-infectivity; • absence of immunogenicity; • good compliance; 337 • well-defined characteristics; • possibility of repeated clinical administration. Plasmids encode bacterial origin of replication, usually derived from a high copy plasmid and a selectable marker, usually a gene that confers resistance to an antibiotic, such as kanamycin or neomycin. These “prokaryotic” plasmid segments permit the production of large quantities of a given plasmid in bacteria. The minimal transcription unit required for the expression of a therapeutic protein consists of 5′ enhancer/promoter upstream of the gene encoding for the therapeutic protein and a poly(A) signal downstream of the gene. Tissue- specific promoters are designed to interact with transcription factors or other nuclear proteins present in the desired target cells. The chicken skeletal a-actin promoter contains positive as-acting elements required for efficient transcriptional activity in myogenic cells. Therefore, an a-actin promoter could direct high expression of recombinant protein in skeletal muscle. The efficiency of polyadenylation is important for gene expression, as transcripts that fail to be cleaved and polyadenylated are rapidly degraded in the nuclear compartment. Therefore, in vivo pulsatile production of certain therapeutic proteins may be beneficial for their clinical applications. This can be achieved by including gene switches in a gene expression system to turn on or off the transcription of an administered gene. A gene switch is designed to be part of a gene expression system that contains both the gene switch and a therapeutic gene. In the positive system, the target gene will be inactive until the administration of an exogenous compound or ligand. Such inducing agents or drugs include progesterone antagonists, tetracycline, ecdysone and rapamycin. This section describes the development of several lipid, peptide and polymer-based gene delivery systems. However, the encapsulation efficiency of plasmids is very low, because of the large dimension of plasmids compared to the internal diameter of the vesicles. The pH-sensitive immunoliposomes have been shown to mediate 6~8 times higher levels of transgene expression into mouse lymphoma cells, compared to non-pH-sensitive immunoliposomes. A negatively charged phospholipid such as phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid or phosphatidyl glycerol, in the absence or presence of cholesterol, are utilized to produce a suspension of multilamellar vesicles containing plasmids, which are then converted to small unilamellar vesicles by sonication. Cochleates have been shown to encapsulate plasmid and enhance plasmid stability and transfection efficiency. A cationic lipid consists of: • a hydrophobic lipid anchor group • a linker group • a positively charged headgroup. Lipid anchors help in forming liposomes (or micellar structures) and determine the physical properties of a lipid bilayer, such as membrane rigidity and rate of lipid exchange between lipid 341 membranes. The linker group is an important component, which determines the chemical stability and biodegradability of a cationic lipid. The head groups of cationic lipid appear to be critical for transfection and cytotoxicity of corresponding liposome formulations. The cationic amphiphiles differ markedly in structure and may be single or multiple charged as primary, secondary, tertiary and/or quaternary amines. Examples are lipospermine, cationic cholesterol, cationic detergent or lipopolysine. The relative proportions of each component and the structure of the head group influence the physicochemical properties of plasmid/lipid complexes. Many effective cationic lipids contain protonatable polyamines linked to dialkyl or cholesterol anchors. To increase the biodegradability of cationic lipids, a series of cationic lipids have been synthesized in which the ether bonds were replaced with ester bonds. Cationic lipid-based gene delivery systems lack target specificity, which results in low transfection efficiency in certain tissues due to the interference from cationic lipid-binding macromolecules either in the circulation or in the extracellular matrix. To circumvent this problem, neutral plasmid/lipospermine complexes containing a trigalactolipid have been prepared and shown to efficiently transfect hepatoma HepG2 cells bearing asialoglycoprotein receptor. Addition of 25% (mol mol−1) of the triantennary galactolipid increased the transfection efficiency by a thousand fold, compared to the lipid-based system with no targeting ligand. An efficient transfection of β-galactosidase into HeLa cells has been shown with the combination of transferrin and cationic liposome Lipofectin, whereas Lipofectin alone had low transfection efficiency. Asialofetuin is an asialoglycoprotein containing terminal galactosyl residues that have been used to target liposomes to the liver. The resulting complexes retain their ability to interact specifically with target cell receptors, leading to receptor-mediated internalization of the complex into the cells. It is known that the active sites of enzymes, receptor ligands and antibodies usually involve about 5 to 20 amino acids. One example of such a gene delivery system comprises: 343 • a galactosylated peptide that both condenses the plasmid into monodisperse nanoparticles of about 100 nm in diameter and enables specific recognition and binding to asialoglycoprotein receptors; • an amphipathic, pH-selective peptide that enables the plasmid to leave the endosomes prior to their fusion with lysosomes and entry into the cytoplasm. Two general classes of lipopeptide analogs of Tyr-Lys-Ala-Lys -n Trp-Lys peptides have been prepared by including a hydrophobic anchor. The general structures are N, N- dialkyl-Gly-Tyr-Lys-Ala-Lys -Trp-Lys and N ,N -diacyl-Lys-Lys -Trp-Lys. These peptides differ from theα n n parent structures in that they self-associate to form micelles in aqueous solutions. The lytic characteristics are revealed as the carboxyl groups of the aspartyl and glutamyl side chains are protonated, which allows the peptides to assume a a-helical conformation that can be inserted into the membrane bilayer. The hydrophobic face contains only strongly apolar amino acids, while negatively charged glutamic acid residues dominate the hydrophilic face at physiological pH. At a given charge ratio of condensing peptide to plasmid, the transfection efficiency has been shown to be proportional to the concentration of the endosomolytic peptide added to the complex. The increased hydrophobicity of the complex may enhance interaction with cell membranes and facilitate cell uptake. However, these polymers cannot be used for in vivo application due to their poor transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. The effect of colloidal and surface characteristics of plasmid/ dendrimer complexes on gene transfer has been examined.
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