By N. Hjalte. Southern Vermont College.

In Portugal the rite had to be performed at midnight on St John’s Eve by three men named John purchase 80 mg propranolol overnight delivery, while three women named Mary spun thread and recited a charm purchase generic propranolol line. Taking the urine of a bewitched patient order propranolol 40 mg overnight delivery, placing it in a vessel along with some sharp objects, and boiling it, would similarly affect the witch. Until the development and acceptance of theory about germs in the nine- teenth century, folk medicine and orthodox medicine again shared similar or the same conceptions of contagion and how to deal with it. One significant difference between the two, however, concerned the folk medical notion that some diseases could not be destroyed and so cures could be achieved only by ritually transferring the illness to someone or something else. In the early seventeenth century Issobell Haldane explained how she cured a child by washing its shirt in some water in the name of the Trinity. On the way, however, she was cross with herself for having spilt some of the water because, if anyone passed over it, the disease would be transferred to them rather than being washed away in the stream. Here hepatitis is known as the mal d’arco or ‘rainbow illness’ and is thought to be contracted by looking at a rainbow while urinating outdoors, or by walking along a crossroad contaminated with the disease. It is cured by the patient urinating for several nights in a pot containing the plant common rue (Ruta graveolens). Ancient Greek physicians believed that health was governed by the balance of four substances or humours, namely yellow bile, black bile, blood and phlegm. Illnesses were caused by the imbalance of these substances, which Traditional European folk medicine | 29 led to excessive heat/cold, moistness/dryness in the body. Cures required the ingestion of foods, liquids or herbs that had hot/cold, wet/dry properties, which counteracted the identified imbalance, or methods such as bleeding, which reduced humoral excesses. In European popular culture people did not necessarily conceptualise health in humoral terms, but their practices and aeti- ologies were based on the theory as much as legitimatised medicine. Once the European medical community had rejected it by the end of the eighteenth century, however, its continued influence became a marker of scientific back- wardness. In its myriad manifestations it had its own distinct identity in local, regional and national contexts. Influence of religion Many aspects of folk medicine were and are inseparable from popular or practical religion. The sacrament of ordination was thought to imbue the Catholic priesthood with the healing power of God’s grace, while in Protes- tant communities ministers and pastors continued to play an important role as healers, using prayer and their literary knowledge of medicine. The Bible was a source of personal spiri- tual and physical succour, a prophylactic against illness, and the source of numerous written and oral healing charms. In Catholic communities sacra- mentals, holy water, blessed herbs, crosses, rosaries and relics had powerful healing properties, and continue to be employed by millions in Europe today. Take, for example, the Loretokind tradition in Switzerland, which concerns a small ivory figure of the infant Jesus displayed in the Capucin convent in Salzburg. Large numbers of replicas and pictures are consecrated by touching them against the original, and then sold at the convent or via mail order along with a blessing prayer. The image or replica is placed on the head or the spot on the body that hurts while reciting the accompanying blessing. A major survey conducted in the 1980s found that over 6000 shrines in western Europe were still active pilgrimage sites. To give just one example of the many that could be cited, in Croatia there has been a long history of worshipping St Lucia to cure eye complaints. Fifty years ago, people flocked to a house in the Istrian penin- sula in Croatia where a gold ring with an image of St Lucia was kept. Its guardian closed the eyelids of patients and made the sign of the cross over them three times with the ring, which had been dipped in consecrated water. In the region today people with eye problems still make vows to St Lucia on her feast day. While some renowned pilgrimages sites were suppressed, many, such as Holywell, the ‘Lourdes of Wales’, survived the Reformation. It remained a centre of Catholic activity despite its illegality, and generated numerous accounts of the miraculous healing properties of its waters. It has even been suggested that in Denmark the popular resort to holy springs and wells, mostly for eye complaints and rickets, became even more widespread after the Reformation, despite the condem- nation of the country’s Lutheran church. The vogue for spas in the eighteenth century gave a boost to some old healing wells. The reputation of St Elian’s Well in north Wales, described in 1700 as being resorted to by ‘papists and other old people’ who offered ‘either a groat or its value in bread’, was, 60 years later, exploited by the building of a ‘respectable’ medicinal bathing house close by. Around the same time, the well curiously began to attract a reputation in folk culture of having the power to curse as well as cure, generating a thriving trade for its custodians. It went from being widely resorted to for a range of human skin complaints in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to its final use for washing dogs to cure the mange, before falling into complete neglect by the twentieth century. In western and central western France some 850 holy springs were resorted to for their healing properties at the begin- ning of the twentieth century, but by 1980 only around 50 were still in use. At the end of the nineteenth century numerous holy healing wells in Ireland were reinvigorated as part of a wider discourse on national identity fostered by the Catholic Church, politicians and folk- lorists. Traditional European folk medicine | 31 Herbalism The use of plants is the most enduring aspect of folk medical practice. Studies of contemporary traditional herbalism in some parts of Greece indi- cate that much of the current usage is still based on the ancient Greek under- standing of herbs, as described in Dioscorides’ founding text of herbal science, De Materia Medica. Some widespread species such as elder (Sambucus) were widely used in both natural and supernatural healing contexts. Broad regional differences are also apparent regarding the use of fungi, which are, of course, not members of the plant kingdom. Evidence for the use of fungi for medicinal purposes is rare in much of western and northern Europe, but more is known about their use in south-eastern Europe. A study of fungi in Hungarian folk medicine, for instance, found that Judas’s ear (Auricularia auricula-judae) was used to cure eye complaints by placing it against the eye, and various puffballs (Lycoperdons) were thought to be efficacious against bleeding and diarrhoea. The potency of plants was thought to be influenced by their being picked and administered according to the waxing and waning of the moon. On a more sophisticated level, herbs were associated with certain planets and used to counteract diseases generated by opposing planets. Plants were also picked on specific religious days depending on regional traditions. Southern Czechs used to place St John’s wort on their beds on St John’s Eve in the hope that the saint would lay upon it at night and bless the herb with cura- tive powers. So remedies are taken in increasing or decreasing doses for 9-day periods followed by 9 days without treatment. A recent study of medicinal plants in the Pallars region of Catalonia found that 109 of 410 herbs were administered in such novenes. In the moun- tainous Molise region of central southern Italy, for example, the practice of winding old man’s beard (Clematis vitalba) seven times around the necks of nervous sheep has been recently recorded. Within family groups, women were usually the main practi- tioners and principal repositories of healing knowledge. Recent studies have found that they make up most of the remaining few traditional folk healers. Women were thought to possess natural abilities for dealing with certain problems, particularly those associated with childbirth and children. As literacy levels were much lower among women than men in much of Europe, until the advent of compulsory education, women were also more associated with oral traditions of medical knowledge, such as obtaining healing gifts from the fairy realm.

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Te day before the event generic 80mg propranolol otc, when some of the bottom teeth collapsed during the baking process buy 80mg propranolol, Dr propranolol 40 mg free shipping. Keep and his assistant worked through the night and ftted the denture some thirty minutes before the ceremony. Parkman returned in a short time and complained that the lower cramped his tongue. An adjustment was made by grinding away portions of the inside of the lower denture. Keep ft portions of the lower denture to models he had retained in the production of it and showed the court where he had done the grinding adjustment of the lower denture. Te Parkman–Webster case represents the frst case of a dentist giving expert testimony in courts in the United States. All who were present stated the bones and teeth were in “good condition as if the King had died only yesterday, instead of 768 years ago. Te family dentist later examined the bodies and was able to correctly identify them. Robinson—His Mistress Although well respected within the community, in 1870, a Mr. Five distinct bitemarks were found on her arm, which clearly showed individual tooth marks. An investigating dentist actually bit the arm of the deceased and later had Robinson bite his (the dentist’s) arm to make comparisons. Te bitemark on the body showed that fve teeth in the maxillary arch caused the mark. Udderzook In 1873 outside of Baltimore, Maryland, a body was found in the ashes of a burned cottage. Gross stated that “there were no artifcial teeth to her knowledge and he never complained of pain or decayed teeth. When the body was examined, the height and other characteristics were similar to Mr. In later years, it was rumored that he had somehow escaped, was alive, and living abroad. Te family could not visually identify the body, but the family’s dentist was able to recognize his work as well as a peculiar “formation” of the jaw that he had noted in his records during a dental visit for the placement of a flling. Oscar Amoëdo—The Bazar de la Charite, 1898 Considered by many to be the father of forensic odontology, Dr. He began his studies at the University of Cuba, continued at New York Dental College, and then returned to Cuba in 1888. He became a dental instructor and teacher at the Ecole Odontotechnique de Paris in 1890 and rose to the rank of professor, writing 120 scientifc articles on many topics (Figure 2. A tragic fre at a charity event, the Bazar de la Charité, stimulated his interest in dental identifcation and the feld of forensic odontology. Amoedo was not involved in the postfre identifca- tions, but knew and interviewed many who were. His thesis to the faculty of medicine, entitled L’Art Dentaire en Medicine Legale, earned him a doctorate and served as the basis for his book by the same name, the frst comprehen- sive text on forensic odontology (Figure 2. His accounts of the identifcations following the Bazar de la Charite were given in a paper at the Dental Section of the International Medical Congress of Moscow and published in English in 1897, one year before the book was published. In that paper he revealed that neither a dentist nor physician generated the idea of dental identifcation: “It was then that M. In the face of the powerlessness of the legal doctors, since all ordinary signs of identifca- tion had disappeared, our confreres were appealed to … Drs. Te dentist complained about how strenuously and thoroughly the defense attor- ney grilled him while he was on the witness stand. Te stairways had been closed and chained to prevent the “lower-class ticket holders” from coming downstairs. Also, the out- side doors opened inward, a popular design of the day, but one that proved disastrous when frightened throngs pushed others against the doors, prevent- ing their opening. Cigrand stated in his article that “hundreds” were “unmistakably identifed” from their dental records. In the 1905 case in Germany, a robber bit into the cheese then lef it on a windowsill. Te store worker was arrested, but requested in court that his mouth be examined again, revealing that he had a broken tooth, the crown was missing, leaving only the root. Residents of the small village of Caleu mistook a group of German tourists for bandits and, fearing an attack, fred upon them. In the ensuing disagreements with German ofcials, the German consulate in Valparaiso was set on fre. Shortly afer this fre, the German litigation building in Santiago burned to the ground. William Becker, according to clothing, a wedding ring (with his wife’s initials in it), a watch, and glasses. Two German 20 Forensic dentistry physicians, members of the faculty of Santiago University, performed a second autopsy. Te anterior teeth were severely burned, but the posterior portion of the remaining dentition was described and charted. During this time, news was given that a consid- erable amount of money was missing from the consulate. A Chilean dentist was then asked by a judge in the case to examine the body and any pertinent records. Becker may have murdered him, dressed him with his own clothes and personal efects, and burned the anterior portion of his face to hide the fact that the secretary had gold bridgework. Law enforcement ofcials were alerted and the sec- retary was captured at a border crossing, trying to escape into Argentina. Becker was able to travel from Santiago into the mountains by wearing dark glasses and a handkerchief, hiding his identity by simulating a toothache. Tis eased the problems between Chile and Germany, and the relationship between the two nations was repaired. He num- bered permanent teeth from one to eight from the anterior midline and dis- tinguished the quadrants by placing the numbers in segments of a cross. Numbering the teeth in this manner, starting with the upper-right third molar (1) and ending with the lower-right third molar (32), is commonly known as the universal system and is widely used in the United States. Keith Simpson describes a most interesting case in which dentures were use- ful for the identifcation of a body placed in an acid bath. A wealthy widow, living in a hotel in England, went out for an afernoon with a John Haig, who lived in the same hotel. Haig showed he had a police record and led to a two-story shed he used for what he called “experi- ments. During his interrogation, Haig admitted killing the widow and said he destroyed her body in acid.

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Individuals are some- their world in multiple ways order 40 mg propranolol mastercard, evidenced by the di- times pragmatic buy propranolol 40 mg low cost, sometimes imaginative purchase propranolol with paypal, and verse manifestations of field patterning that contin- sometimes visionary. Human and environmental micities of lower-higher frequencies work together, field rhythms are speeding up. Integrality than viewing aging as a process of decline or as is “continuous mutual human field and envi- “running down,” as in an entropic worldview, this ronmental field process” (Rogers, 1990a, p. It theory views aging as a creative process whereby specifies the context of change as the integral field patterns show increasing diversity in such human-environmental field process where person manifestations as sleeping, waking, and dreaming. Rogers hypothesized that hyperactive children Together the principles suggest that the mutual provide a good example of speeded-up rhythms patterning process of human and environmental relative to other children. They would be expected fields changes continuously, innovatively, and un- to show indications of faster rhythms, increased predictably, flowing in lower and higher frequen- motion, and other behaviors indicative of this shift. They are specific to nursing and re- ness, examples of pandimensional reality that flect not what nurses do, but an understanding of manifest visionary, beyond waking potentials. Nursing edu- Meditation, for example, transcends tradition- cation is identified by transmission of this theoret- ally perceived limitations of time and space, open- ical knowledge, and nursing practice is the creative ing the door to new and creative potentials. Nursing research uses it to il- Therapeutic touch provides another example of luminate the nature of the human-environmental such pandimensional awareness. Both participants field change process and its many unpredictable often share similar experiences during therapeutic potentials. Higher fre- vu, and clairvoyance become normal rather than quency field patterns that manifest growing diver- paranormal experiences. Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings 165 thus encompasses paranormal events such as out- In a 1990 panel discussion among Rogers and of-body and apparitional experiences. She cited five other theorists, Rogers maintained that “[o]ur Margeneau’s discussion in “Science, Creativity, and primary concern. Our job is better health, and people do world: “It is our human lot to look at the four- better making their own choices. She was an advocate for slit only opens at the time of death, you see more people’s rights to make their own informed choices than a segmented three-dimensional slice of the in the belief that this would improve well-being. In four-dimensional universe” (cited in McEvoy, 1990, yet another panel discussion in 1991, Rogers ex- p. Death itself is a transition, not an end, a plained that greater diversity necessitates “services manifestation of increasing diversity as energy that are far more individualized than we have ever fields transform. Rogers’ third theory, Rhythmical Correlates of Rogers consistently identified the need for indi- Change, was changed to “Manifestations of Field vidualized, community-based health services in- Patterning in Unitary Human Beings,” discussed corporating noninvasive modalities. Here Rogers suggested that evolution is an examples from those currently in use, such as ther- irreducible, nonlinear process characterized by in- apeutic touch, meditation, imagery, humor, and creasing diversity of field patterning. She offered laughter, while stating her belief that new ones will some manifestations of this relative diversity, in- emerge out of the evolution toward spacekind cluding the rhythms of motion, time experience, (Rogers, 1994b). The principles of homeodynamics and sleeping-waking, encouraging others to suggest provide a way to understand the process of human- further examples. The next part of this chapter cov- environmental change, paving the way for Rogerian ers Rogerian science-based practice and research in theory-based practice. Rogers maintained that both qualitative Nurses must use “nursing knowledge in and quantitative research methods were non-invasive ways in a direct effort to appropriate for Rogerian science–based promote well-being. She said that nurses must use “nursing knowledge in non-invasive ways in a direct effort to promote well-being” (Rogers, 1994a, p. This focus gives Rogerian science–based research, with the nature of nurses a central role in health care rather than the question and the phenomena under investiga- medical care. Rogers urged Pattern manifestations have provided a com- nurses to develop autonomous, community-based mon research focus, highlighting the need for tools nursing centers. Some comments on the theoretical basis to measure awareness of the infinite wholeness of of nursing practice. For public safety: Higher education’s re- Pattern Scale explores diverse pattern changes and sponsibility for professional education in nursing. New York: oped the Person-Environment Participation Scale American Nurses’ Association. Regional planning for graduate education Currently, researchers are using Rogerian tools in nursing. Proceedings of the National Committee of Deans of Schools of Nursing having accredited graduate programs in such as those described, developing new Rogerian nursing. Yesterday a nurse—today a manager— daily as nurses apply the knowledge gained through what now? Nurses’ expanding role and other eu- been eagerly taken up by a community of commit- phemisms. The family coping with a surgical crisis: Analysis and application of Rogers’ theory of nursing. Notes on nursing: science postulates a pandimensional universe of What it is, and what it is not (Commemorative edition, pp. The science of unitary human beings: tive, increasingly diverse, creative, and unpre- Current perspectives. The human and environ- that practice and research methods must be consis- mental fields are inseparable, so one cannot “come tent with the Science of Unitary Human Beings in between. Therefore, inconsistent with Rogers’ principle of helicy: that Rogerian practice and research methods must be expected outcomes infer predictability. The princi- congruent with Rogers’ postulates and principles if ple of helicy describes the nature of change as being they are to be consistent with Rogerian science. Within an energy-field perspective, nurses in mutual process assist clients in actual- izing their field potentials by enhancing their Practice ability to participate knowingly in change (Butcher, 1997). The goal of nursing practice is the promotion of Given the inconsistency of the traditional nurs- well-being and human betterment. Nursing is a ing process with Rogers’ postulates and principles, service to people wherever they may reside. Since the 1960s, the nursing process practice methods have been derived from Rogers’ has been the dominant nursing practice method. The nursing process is an appropriate practice methodology for many nursing theories. But currently the most widely used Rogerian practice in later years she asserted that nursing diagnoses model. Barrett’s (1988) practice model was derived were not consistent with her scientific system. Barrett [N]ursing diagnosis is a static term that is quite inap- (1998) expanded and updated the methodology by propriate for a dynamic system... Pattern manifestation knowing is Furthermore, nursing diagnoses are particular- the continuous process of apprehending the istic and reductionistic labels describing cause and human and environmental field (Barrett, 1998).

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